A urinalysis or urine routine test includes physical, chemical, and microscopic analysis of urine samples. The purpose of these tests is to detect and measure several chemical substances in the urine, for example, cells, bacteria, cellular fragments, and byproducts of our body.
Kidneys are the reason behind the production of urine. They are two fist-sized organs located at the bottom of the ribcage and either side of the spine. The main functions of this organ are to regulate water amount in the body, filter wastes materials out of the blood, and conserve proteins and other organic compounds reused by the body. Kidneys expel anything that is no longer needed for the healthy function of a body, travelling from the kidneys to ureters and bladder, and then flushes out of the body through the urethra.
The System International Units (SI units) is used in most countries to test the results of the urine test. Clinical laboratories in the United States, usually report Urine Test Normal Values in conventional units.
With the help of the chart given below, you can find out Urine routine Test Normal Values in conventional units followed by SI equivalents. These values should be viewed as reference values rather than absolute urine routine test normal values. There may be some changes concerning the individual’s gender, diet, age, and environmental factors.
Reference values given in this chart are based on various factors, including the laboratory that supplies them. The urine test values should be interpreted based on the reference value in which the test was done; the lab typically provides these values with the test result.
|TEST (SPECIMEN)||U.S. REFERENCE VALUES (SI UNITS)||CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS|
|Amylase (2 hours)||35-260 Somogyi, units/hr (6.5-48.1 units/hr)||Values increase in inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) or salivary glands, obstruction of the pancreatic duct, and perforated peptic ulcer.|
|Blirubin*(random)||Negative||Values increase in liver disease and obstructive biliary disease.|
|Blood* (random)||Negative||Values increase in renal disease, extensive burns, transfusion reactions, and hemolytic anemia.|
|Calcium (Ca+2) (random)||10 mg/dL (2.5 mmol/L) up to 300mg/24 hr(7.5 mmol/24 hr)||The amount depends on dietary intake. Values increase in hyperparathyroidism, metastatic malignancies, and primary cancer of breasts and lungs. Values decrease in hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency.|
|Casts (24 hours)|
|Epithelial||Occasional||Values increase in nephrosis and heavy metal poisoning.|
|Granular||Occasional||Values increase in nephritis and pyelonephritis|
|Hyaline||Occasional||Values increase in kidney infections.|
|Red blood cell||Occasional||Values increase in glomerular membrane damage and fever.|
|White blood cell||Occasional||Values increase in pyelonephritis, kidney stones, and cystitis.|
|Chloride (Cl-) (24 hours)||140-250 mEq/24 hr(140-250 mmol/24 hr)||The amount depends on dietary salt intake. Values increase in Addison’s disease. Dehydration and starvation. Values decrease in pyloric obstruction, diarrhea, and emphysema.|
|Color (random)||Yellow, straw, amber||Varies with many disease states, hydration, and diet.|
|Creatinine (24 hours)||Males: 1.0-2.0 g/24 hr (9-18 mmol/24 hr) Females: 0.8-1.8 g/24 hr (7-16 mmo1/24 hr)||Values increase in infections. Values decrease in muscular atrophy, anemia, and kidney diseases.|
|Glucose*||Negative||Values increase in diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and myocardial infarction.|
|Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-hydroxysteroids) (24 hours)||Males: 5-15 mg/24 hr (13-41 μmol/24 hr) Females: 2-13 mg/24 hr (5-36 μmol/24 hr)||Values increase in Cushing’s syndrome, burns, and infections. Values decrease in Addison’s disease.|
|Ketone bodies* (random)||Negative||Values increase in diabetic acidosis, fever, anorexia, fasting, and starvation.|
|17-Ketosteroids (24 hours)||Males: 8-25 mg/24 hr (28-87 μmol/24 hr) Females: 5-15 mg/24 hr (17-53 μmo;/24 hr)||Values decrease in surgery, burns, infections, adrenogenital syndrome, and Cushing’s syndrome.|
|Odor (random)||Aromatic||Becomes acetone like in diabetic ketosis.|
|Osmolarity (24 hours)||500- 800 mOsm/kg water (500 -800 mmol/kg water)||Values increase in cirrhosis, congestive heart failure (CHF), and high-protein diets. Values decrease in aldosteronism, diabetes insipidus, and hypokalemia.|
|pH* (random)||4.6-8.0||Values increase in urinary tract infections and severe alkalosis. Values decrease in acidosis, emphysema, starvation, and dehydration.|
|phenyl pyruvic acid (random)||Negative||Values increase in phenylketonuria (PKU).|
|potassium (K+) (24 hours)||40-80 mEq/24 hr (40-80 mmol/24 hr)||Values increase in chronic renal failure, dehydration, starvation, and Cushing’s syndrome. Values decrease in diarrhea, malabsorption syndrome, and adrenal cortical insufficiency.|
|Protein* (albumin) (random)||Negative||Values increase in nephritis, fever, severe anemias, trauma, and hyperthyroidism.|
|Sodium (Na+) (24 hours)||75-200 mEq/24 hr (75-200 mmol/24 hr)||The amount depends on dietary salt intake. Values increase in dehydration, starvation, and diabetic acidosis. Values decrease in diarrhea, acute renal failure, emphysema, and Cushing’s syndrome.|
|Specific gravity* (random)||1.001- 1.035 (same)||Values increase its diabetes mellitus and excessive water loss values decrease in the absence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and severe renal damage.|
|Urea (24 hours)||25-35 g/24 hr (420-580 mmol/24||Values increase in response to increased protein intake. Values decrease in impaired renal function.|
|Uric acid (24 hours)||0.4- 1.0 g/24 hr (1.5 -4.0 mmol/24 hr)||Values increase in gout, leukemia, and liver disease. Values decrease in kidney disease.|
|Urobilinogen*(24 hours)||1.7-6.0 μmol/24 hr||Values increase in anemias, hepatitis A (infectious), biliary disease, and cirrhosis values decrease in cholelithiasis and renal insufficiency.|
|Volume,total(24 hours)||1000-2000 mL/24 hr (1.0-2.0 L/24 hr)||Varies with many factors|