What is Bacteria?

Bacteria are the single-celled organisms and also called prokaryotes. It means the DNA of the bacteria has a nucleoid but which is not enclosed. Bacteria have the existence of 3.5 billion years. We cannot see the bacteria with the naked eye but can be viewed with the help of an electron microscope.

Types Of Bacteria

There are various types of bacteria, according to shapes, which are as follows:

According To Shapes:

  • Spherical (cocci)
  • Rod (bacilli)
  • Spiral (spirilla)
  • The comma (vibrios)
  • Corkscrew (spirochaetes)

According To Mode Of Respiration

Bacteria follow the mechanism of Aerobic as well as anaerobic respiration.

  • Aerobic bacteria can grow in the presence of oxygen.
  • Anaerobic bacteria grow in the absence of oxygen.

According To Mode Of Nutrition

Bacteria can be autotrophs that require light or chemical reactions to produce energy themselves, or they can be heterotrophs that obtain energy with the help of the breakdown of complex substances like plant or animal as they are unable to synthesize organic compounds themselves.

Good Bacteria:

Most of the bacteria are the good bacteria, and many of them live inside the digestive tract and help the digestive system in the process of digestion and support us in everyday mechanisms.

Antibiotic-Resistant bacteria:

Bacteria become anti resistant when it develops the mechanism to conquest the drugs that are designed to kill them. It may lead to the multiplication of the bacteria and cause severe bacterial infections and provide harm to the human body.


Difference between virus and bacteria

What are viruses?

Viruses are considered as a piece of genetic material that can be DNA or RNA, and it is enclosed with the sheet of a protein called Capsid. Outside of this envelope are present glycol proteins protrusions, which are also called as peplomers.
Viruses can be triangular-shaped, spiked shaped, or mushroom-like shape.
Viruses cannot be seen through the naked eye, can be viewed via microscopes and they are way too smaller than bacteria.
Viruses require a host to infect inside a human body or to proceed with the life-sustaining functions. They are parasites that require a host for their survival and reproduction. Most of the viruses are responsible for causing disease and are nor beneficial for the human body.

What are the differences between Bacteria and Viruses?

Bacteria and viruses are somewhat similar, but they might differ in certain conditions. The conditions in which they seem similar are as follows:

  • They cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  • They are sometimes responsible for causing similar symptoms.
  • They sometimes spread in a similar direction.

Following are the differences between Virus and Bacteria:


Only harmful bacteria cause infections in humans. These bacteria are known as pathogenic bacteria.


Viruses are pathogenic and they are non-cellular as they do not have a nucleus. They require a particular host or body or some animal to increase their growth or multiply. They are responsible for causing the infections once they enter the host’s body and then growth multiples.

Bacteria Virus
Bacteria are complex organisms and are prokaryotes. The virus is a smaller organism that requires another body to grow
Bacteria have ribosomes Virus don does not have ribosomes
The cell wall is present in bacteria No cell present in virus, viruses are coated with the protein coat
No nucleus present In bacteria No nucleus present in the virus
Bacteria’s are treated with antibiotic Vaccines are used to treat the virus
Bacteria have localized infections The virus has systemic infections
Bacteria’s are beneficial Viruses are never beneficial
DNA and RNA are present inside the cytoplasm, floating DNA or RNA present inside the protein coat
Difference between virus and bacteria

What is the difference in the transmission of the bacteria and the virus?

  • There is no difference in the transmission of bacteria and viruses, and they spread similarly.
  • They can be spread via droplets when the person coughs or sneezes
  • Both can be transmitted via infected fluids inside the body, which can be through urine, faeces, or sex.
  • It can also be transmitted during or after pregnancy, from the mother to the infant.
  • The animals can also be carriers of these viruses or bacteria such as mosquitos, ticks etc.

Bacterial and Viral Infections:

Bacterial and viral infections are a different kind of infections. As the name indicates that bacterial infection is caused by bacteria, whereas viral infections are caused by viruses. Most important is to identify the fact that what is the primary source of infection, bacteria, or a virus because the treatment of both infections can differ, as well as the methods are different.
There are various kinds of viral infections that include:

  • Cold
  • Cough
  • Flu
  • HIV
  • AIDS
  • Chickenpox etc.

Different kind of bacterial infections are as follows.

  • Ear infections
  • Infection in urinary tracts
  • Bronchitis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tetanus
  • Food poisoning etc.

Bacterial And Viral Infection Diagnosis

Microbes cause bacterial or viral infections. Bacterial and viral infections may lead to mild disease to severe disease.

Bacterial Infection Diagnosis

Bacterial infections can be diagnosed with the help of the various laboratory tests, and the most common are as follows:

  • Bacterial culture.
  • Antibiotic Sensitivity testing.

Bacterial Culture:

The process of growing bacteria is known as bacterial culture. It can be performed by placing the skin swab and providing suitable conditions on which the bacteria can grow. Favourable temperature, as well as a sufficient amount of oxygen, is provided in the culture.

  • Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to grow.
  • Anaerobic bacteria do not need oxygen.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing:

Antibiotic sensitivity testing predicts the antibiotics that are responsible for inhibiting the growth of bacteria that are produced with the help of the culture. It determines which antibiotic is suitable for fighting against the particular infection. It is responsible for predicting.

  • Which antibiotics are effective against the particular bacteria?
  • To check whether the bacteria is resistant to the particular antibiotic
  • Identifying the resistance patterns of the bacteria.

Bacterial Infection Diagnosis

Following are the bacterial infection tests:

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • C-reactive proteins (CRP)
  • Procalcitonin
  • Serology
  • Rapid plasma reagin

Viral infection Diagnosis

The most common technique for finding viral infection is PCR. It is considered as the most specific method for virus Infection testing, PCR stands for a polymerase chain reaction. In this technique, DNA is multiplied or multiple copies of the DNA so that scientists can use it for study. Other tests for viral infection include:

  • Viral culture
  • A viral antigen detection system
  • Virus RNA/DNA detection test

Bacterial Infection And Viral Infection Treatment

Bacteria and virus both differ in structures, and their response towards certain medications are also different.

How to treat Bacterial Infection?

  • Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, and the doctor usually treated these kinds of infections with the help of antibiotics.
  • These antibiotics may help against fighting the infection utilizing killing them or by ceasing their growth or from multiplying.
  • Antibiotics may create resistance, and this issue is increasing day by day, so the doctors usually prescribe the medicines if the patient has an acute bacterial infection. They can also treat by the following ways medication or antibiotics that fight against certain bacteria.

How to treat Viral Infection

The viral infection is caused by viruses, and there are various methods to treat viral infections which are as follows:

  • A low dose of medicines to get relieved from the cold, fever or cough.
  • Ceasing the growth of the viruses by giving specific antibiotics against those viruses.
  • Provide a vaccine to the patient against the specific virus.
  • Sufficient sleep.

Use medication that may help against fighting the virus and prevent cough, cold, pain aches, etc.

Is there any difference in the symptoms of the virus and bacteria?

Symptoms in an infected individual might be similar for the virus and bacteria, and they are as follows

  • Coughing
  • Cold
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: Do bacteria and viruses have a similar structure?

Answer: No, both bacteria and viruses have a different shape.

Question 2: what are the specific characteristic of bacteria?

Answer: They are single-cell, living organisms and have a cell wall.

Question3: Virus is considered as a living organism or not?

Answer: No, they are not considered as living organisms as they require somebody or host for their survival.

Question 4: Are bacteria responsible for causing diseases?

Answer: Most of the bacteria are good bacteria and are beneficial for human health, whereas 1% of the bacteria are responsible for causing diseases.

Question 5: How is the bacterial infection treated?

Answer: They are treated with the help of antibiotics.

Question 6: How are the viral infections treated?

Answer: They should be left to be treated with the immune system, to fight against such infections, but an antiviral is also an option in need. For prevention, vaccines can be a solution.

Question 7: What is the most common technique for the diagnosis of bacterial infection?

Answer: Bacterial culture is the most common technique for diagnosing bacterial infection.

Question 8: What is the most common technique for diagnosing viral infections?

Answer: PCR-Polymerase Chain reaction is the most common way of diagnosing viral infections.

Question 9: What are the different kinds of bacteria?
Answer: Different types of bacteria includes:
Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma.

Question 10: What causes bacterial and viral infections?
Answer: Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, whereas viral infections are caused by viruses.

Question 11: List a few types of viral infection tests.

Answer: Viral culture, A viral antigen detection system, Virus RNA/DNA detection test.